Seminars: Economics of Science & Engineering

  Economics of Science & Engineering..................................................................................................

Term:  Fall 2019-2020

Location:  Baker 102 (Bloomberg Center, HBS)
Meeting Time: Fridays, 12pm-1:30pm
Description:  Focus on work force and career issues. Topics include: Effects of globalization on work force and innovation, growth of networks in work; impact of career incentives on productivity; university policies; mobility between academe and industry; link between ideas and outputs.
List Serve/Announcements:  Graduate Level Seminar 

SEMINAR THIS WEEK:  Friday November 22 @ 12pm

SPEAKER:  Edward Glaeser (Harvard University) 
TITLE: "The Spatial Mismatch Between Innovation and Joblessness" (paper joint with Naomi Hausman, Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
ABSTRACT: American technological creativity is geographically concentrated in areas that are generally distant from the country’s most persistent pockets of joblessness. Could a more even spatial distribution of innovation reduce American joblessness? Could Federal policies disperse innovation without significant costs? If research funding is already maximizing knowledge production, then spatial reallocation of that funding will reduce America’s overall innovation unless that reallocation comes with greater spending.Without any spatial reallocation, the primarily inventive parts of innovation policy, such as N.I.H.grants, can potentially aid underperforming areas by targeting the problems of those areas, like widespread disability. The educational aspects of innovation policy, such as Pell Grants, work-study, vocational training, and Federal overhead reimbursement on grants, currently have multiple objective and could focus more on employability in distressed areas. Lifting the cap on H1B visas in poorer places could attract outside human capital to those places. Geographically targeted entrepreneurship policies, such as eliminating the barriers to new business formation near universities and in distressed places, could potentially enhance employment growth in those regions. Spatially targeted employment subsidies will increase the returns to labor-intensive innovation in depressed areas, but we know little about how much innovation will respond to such subsidies.
PPT for SEMINAR: 
The Rise of Non-Employed Men

DATE SPEAKER  TITLE  
Sept 6, 2019 NO SEMINAR  
Sept 13, 2019 Speaker: Jorge Guzman (Columbia Business School) (paper joint with Catherine Fazio and Scott Stern)

TITLE: "The Impact of State-Level R&D Tax Credits on the Quantity and Quality of Entrepreneurship"
ABSTRACT: The acceleration of start-up activity is often cited as a rationale for the R&D tax credit, a key innovation policy instrument adopted increasingly by US states over the past quarter century. While there is a strong empirical base linking the R&D tax credit to increased R&D expenditures and innovation, prior work has not provided causal evidence that this policy effects the rate of formation and growth potential of new businesses. This paper combines data from the US Startup Cartography Project with the Panel Database on Incentives and Taxes to implement a difference-in-differences estimate of the impact of the R&D tax credit on the quantity and quality-adjusted quantity of entrepreneurship. Our key finding is that the R&D tax credit is associated with a significant long-term impact on both the overall quantity and quality-adjusted quantity of entrepreneurship, with the bulk of the effect materializing more than five years after the policy is enacted. These findings stand in contrast to an analysis of the adoption of state-level investment tax credits. There, we observe no long-term impact on the quantity of entrepreneurship but a marked decline in the rate of formation of growth-oriented startups over time. Combined with other evidence regarding the efficacy of R&D tax credits in spurring innovative investment, our results shed light on the potential for this fiscal policy to also stimulate the formation of growth-oriented start-ups. 

Sept 20, 2019 

Speaker: Morgan Frank (Postdoc Assoc affiliated with the Human Dynamics research group at the Media Laboratory, the Institute for Data, Systems, and Society (IDSS), and the Initiative for the Digital Economy (IDE) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Also a Research Collaborator at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH).

 

 

     

    TITLE: The Complexity of Workplace Skills and the Future of Work
    Publications Covered: 

    • "Small cities face greater impact from automation." Journal of the Royal Society Interface (2018).
    • "Unpacking the polarization of workplace skills." Science Advances (2018).
    • "Towards understanding the impact of AI on labor." PNAS (2019).
      TALK ABSTRACT:
      Rapid advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and other cognitive technologies have the potential to drastically impact society and the future of work. Workers and policy makers need strategies to promote career mobility, economic resilience, and employment opportunity, but the task is made difficult by the coarse tools for describing job polarization for low-skill and high-skill workers. A given technology impacts the demand for only a narrow set of workplace skills and these microscopic perturbations accumulate into macroscopic labor trends that we discuss today. In this talk, I explore the complex ways that skills and employment underpin labor dynamics in the US. As a motivating example, I demonstrate how simple measures for skills within a labor market contribute to the differential impact of automation across US cities of different sizes. I build on this motivation through a refined model of workplace skills and their inter-dependencies. An unsupervised network analysis of workplace skills reveals new insights into job polarization and workers' career mobility. Since these inter-skill connections predict career mobility, I construct a map of US occupations that captures worker transition rates between employment opportunities and, in combination with urban employment data, predicts workers' spatial mobility. These refined models that connect workplace skills to both inter-city and intra-city dynamics enable new insights and new input data sources for real-time labor trends at the level of specific technologies and specific workplace skills. This analysis provides new tools to policy makers designing viable worker retraining programs, offers new insights to individual workers navigating their careers, and suggests new measures for economic resilience in the face of changing technology.
    Sept 27, 2019 Speaker: Kevin Boudreau (D'Amore-McKim Sch of Business, Northeastern U) (paper joint with Matt Marx (Boston University

    Title: "From Theory to Practice: Field Experimental Evidence on Early Exposure of Engineering Majors to Professional Work"
    ABSTRACT:
    Young workers typically enter the professional labor market only after completing higher education. We investigate how earlier professional work experience affects skilled worker development. In a field experiment, 1,787 Engineering majors were randomly assigned to 6- month work terms to begin either in the second or third year of studies. Early exposure caused systematic differences in inclination to take Engineering elective courses, choice of major, and the probability of persisting in Engineering years later—consistent with engagement, retention, and sorting effects. Early exposure notably increased academic and professional outcomes of lower-income students. 
    PRESENTATION SLIDES:

    Oct 4, 2019 Speaker: Annabelle Fowler (Harvard University) TITLE: "Strategic Delay in the Introduction of Pharmaceutical Line Extensions"
    ABSTRACT: This paper studies pharmaceutical firm decisions on follow-on product timing and finds evidence of strategic introduction delays. Prior to generic entry, firms can mitigate future revenue losses to generics by reformulating original products into line extensions. Because line extensions receive exclusivity periods upon approval that are separate from the original product’s, firms face a tradeoff: introduce line extensions early to attract new consumers and allow original product consumers to switch to the line extension, or delay introduction so that the line extension’s exclusivity extends beyond the original product’s. I show that the incentive for delayed introduction increases with the share of line extension sales that cannibalizes the original product. I test for delay using a novel dataset of over 650 original products approved in the US from 1985 to 2016. Consistent with strategic delay, an original product is 1.8 times as likely to have a line extension approved in the two years prior to generic entry, relative to a baseline period of four or more years prior. As the theory predicts, line extension types that are more likely to cannibalize their predecessor product have an increased likelihood of later entry. I use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the length of the delay, and discuss results in the context of consumer welfare and innovation policy.
    Oct 11, 2019  No Seminar this week  
    Oct 18, 2019 No seminar this week  
    Oct 25, 2019 SPECIAL SEMINAR:  TITLE:  Some Executive Views of Technology on the Future of Work
    ABSTRACT:  A discussion regarding the effect of technology on work. How can scientific analysis help in the developing of policy solutions, legal and regulatory changes, and institutional frameworks, so that firms, workers and economies are equipped to meet the challenge of AI and robotics.
    LOCATION:  Cumnock Hall, Room 220 
    Nov 1, 2019 Speaker: Meijun Liu (The University of Hong Kong, Division of information and technology) and Shuo Li Liu (Stanford University School of Engineering) 

    TITLE: "The Growth of Pledging Patent as Collateral in China: The Effect of Policy and Impact on Patenting"
    ABSTRACT: Pledging patents as loan collateral to ease the financial constraints of small and medium-sized firms has increased in advanced countries, and despite China's less sophisticated market in intangible capital, has increased in China as well. Using a before/after research design, we find that government policies sparked much of China's increase in patent collateralization from 2002 to 2015, with non-bank lenders giving more collateral loans to smaller, young, private firms, while bank lenders favored larger, older, non-state-owned enterprises. Policies that provided direct financial support to lenders and policies in cities where patents were actively traded worked best. We also find that by adding value to patents, policies induced firms to make more patent applications, encouraging innovation. The impact of Chinese government policy on pledging patents as loan collateral reflects the nation’s continuing entrepreneurial role in capitalism with Chinese characteristics.

    Nov 8, 2019 Speaker: Galit Eizman (Research Associate, Harvard Kennedy School) (paper joint with Alice Ruichen Wang, Renmin Univ, China)  TITLE: "Brands in Higher Education and the Impact on University Choice"
    ABSTRACT: What influences higher education choices? In this paper we examine the relationship between brand names, university choice and willingness to pay for branded institutions. Using randomized control trial and revealed preferences method, we offer participants detailed information about selected universities, require them to select their preferred university, and give a donation, or purchase merchandise of this institution - with or without knowing the university name. The results provide a fascinating evidence for the statistically significant difference between the choices made by treatment and control groups. These results indicate a possible mismatch and off-equilibrium situation in the current higher education market
    Nov 15, 2019 Speaker: Ashley Nunes (Senior Research Associate, Labor and Worklife Program at Harvard Law School)  TITLE: Can Driverless Technology Upend Personal Vehicle Ownership? A Bottom-Up Global Analysis"
    ABSTRACT:  Passenger vehicles are a major source of air pollution, exposure to which increases respiratory disease risk, amplifies life-threatening conditions and burdens the public purse. The negative externalities associated with these vehicles rise further when road accidents are considered. Almost all such accidents involving fatalities transpire when private users are in single vehicle incidents or collide with each other. Though autonomous vehicle technology can mitigate these effects, widespread adoption and proliferation demands cost competitiveness with the status quo; namely, conventionally driven vehicles. Here we show that contrary to mainstream discourse, this prospect is unlikely owing to supply-demand matching inefficiencies and impracticable profit expectations. In a single ridership model, we find capacity utilization rates would need to improve by nearly 100% and profits lowered by 37% for autonomous vehicles to achieve cost parity with their conventionally driven counterparts in a select US market. Similar cost impediments are observed in other international markets. We conclude that - absent the enforcement of targeted policy instruments - the widespread adoption of a technology that may dramatically improve public health outcomes is unlikely. 
    Nov 22, 2019 Speaker: Edward Glaeser (Harvard University) TITLE: "The Spatial Mismatch Between Innovation and Joblessness" (paper joint with Naomi Hausman, Hebrew University of Jerusalem) 
    ABSTRACT: American technological creativity is geographically concentrated in areas that are generally distant from the country’s most persistent pockets of joblessness. Could a more even spatial distribution of innovation reduce American joblessness? Could Federal policies disperse innovation without significant costs? If research funding is already maximizing knowledge production, then spatial reallocation of that funding will reduce America’s overall innovation unless that reallocation comes with greater spending.Without any spatial reallocation, the primarily inventive parts of innovation policy, such as N.I.H.grants, can potentially aid underperforming areas by targeting the problems of those areas, like widespread disability. The educational aspects of innovation policy, such as Pell Grants, work-study, vocational training, and Federal overhead reimbursement on grants, currently have multiple objective and could focus more on employability in distressed areas. Lifting the cap on H1B visas in poorer places could attract outside human capital to those places. Geographically targeted entrepreneurship policies, such as eliminating the barriers to new business formation near universities and in distressed places, could potentially enhance employment growth in those regions. Spatially targeted employment subsidies will increase the returns to labor-intensive innovation in depressed areas, but we know little about how much innovation will respond to such subsidies.
    PPT for SEMINAR:  The Rise of Non-Employed Men
    Nov 29, 2019 Thanksgiving  
    Dec 6, 2019

    Speaker: tba

    Title:  tba
    Dec 13, 2019 Speaker: TITLE:
    ABSTRACT:
    END OF SEMESTER    

     

     

    Location of Baker 102 (Bloomberg Center), HBS

    Speaker Papers and Presentations (since 2012)

    2019, 11/22: GLAESER-Edward: The Spatial Mismatch between Innovation and Joblessness_NBERchap-in-Lerner-Stern_Ec3118
    2019, 11/22: GLAESER-Edward: The Rise of Non-Employed Men

    2019, 11/15: NUNES-Ashley: ​Can driverless technology upend personal vehicle ownership? A bottom-up global analysis_Ec3118

    2019, 9/27: BOUDREAU-Kevin and MARX-Matt: From Theory to Practice: Field Experimental Evidence on Early Exposure of Engineering Majors to Professional Work

    2019, 9/20:  FRANK-Morgan: Paper 1 - Small cities face greater impact from automationJournal of the Royal Society Interface (2018).
    2019, 9/20: FRANK-Morgan: Paper 2 - Unpacking the polarization of workplace skillsScience Advances (2018).
    2019, 9/20: FRANK-Morgan: Paper 3 - Towards understanding the impact of AI on laborPNAS (2019).

    2019, 9/13: GUZMAN-Jorge: The Impact of State-Level R&D Tax Credits on the Quantity and Quality of Entrepreneurship_NBERwp26099_ec3118

    2019, 4/22: ROSSI-Francesca: AI-Ethics-for-Enterprise-AI_ec3118-HBS.pdf

    2019, 3/8: Van REENAN-John: Who Becomes an Inventor in America_NBERwp24062.pdf

    2019, 2/25: FURMAN-Jason: AI-and-Economy_NBERwp24689.pdf

    2019, 2/22: LI-Li-and-MAK-Eric: Peer Optimal Assignment_with-Wang_4Jan19.pdf

    2019, 2/1: FREEMAN-Richard and XIE-Qingnan: Bigger than You Thought_Chinas Contribution_JOURNAL_China and World Economy_Jan2019.pdf

    2018, 4/20: LO-Andrew: paper-1_SBBI-4-20-18_NBT_Dec2017.pdf

    2018, 4/20: LO-Andrew: paper-2_SBBI-4-20-18_Jamaoncology_Montazerhodjat_2017_oi_170004.pdf

    2018, 4/20: LO-Andrew: paper-3_SBBI-4-20-18_DDT_Devices.pdf

    2018, 4/20: LO-Andrew: paper-4_SBBI-4-20-18_predictive_15.pdf

    2018, 4/20: LO-Andrew: paper-5_SBBI-4-20-18_ClinTrialSuccess.pdf

    2018, 3/2: MALONEY-Bill: Engineering-Growth_8-31-17.pdf

    2018, 2/23_TABAKOVIC-Haris: Revolving_Doors_Tabakovic_Wollmann_ec2888r.pdf

    2018, 2/9: BESSEN-James: AI and Job - The Role of Demand_nberw24235.pdf

    2017, 10/6: GLENNON-Britta: Offshoring Innovation in Taiwan_WP_6Oct 2017.pdf

    2017, 10/4: BORJAS-George: 10-4-17_Ethnic-Complementarities-Students_NBERw21096.pdf

    2017, 4/21: GREENSTEIN-Shane: ICTE-1.pdf

    2017, 2/17: LANE-Julie_et-al: Research Funding and Regional Economics_NBERw23018.pdf

    2017, 2/17: LANE-Julie_et-al: PPT_Research Funding and Regional Economies_2-17-17

    2017, 2/3: KERR-William_et-al: Mechanics of Endogenous Innovation_Patents.pdf

    2016, 12/9: DEMING: SocialSkills_NoAppendix_Aug2016.pdf

    2016, 11/4: BOSSO-Christopher: JNR.pdf

    2016, 10/28: MOTOYAMA-Yas: Connected Entrepreneurs.pdf

    2016, 10/21: LESCHLY SEMINAR: SWARTZ_Speech_10-21-16.htm

    2016, 10/21: LESCHLY SEMINAR: BERGER-Kenneth_5-Minutes Sermon.pdf

    2016, 10/7: Doblinger: Governments as partners (w-Surana+Anadon).pdf

    2016, 10/6: BORNER: full report_NSF-ModSTI-Conf-Report_for-SBBI-10-6-16.pdf

    2016, 10/6: BORNER: Discussion-on-10-6-16_Modelling Sci Tech Innov.docx

    2016, 9/16: WANG: Bias Against Novelty in Science_(with Veugelers-Stephan)_w22180.pdf

    2016, 4/8: ARORA-Ashish_Killing the Golden Goose - Decline of Science in Corporate R&D

    2016, 3:11: GANGULI-Ina: Mobility of Elite Life Scientists.pdf

    2016, 2/5: WILLIAMS-Heidi: How Do Patents Affect Follow-on Innovation_Evidence from Human Genome_WP21666_Oct2015.pdf

    2015, 12/4: Richard Freeman and Sen Chai

    2015, 11/6: Jing Xia: Financing and the Market for Ideas - Evidence from Biopharma.pdf

    2015, 10/30: Annamaria Conti: PhD Career-Preferences.pdf

    2015, 10/30: CONTI-Annamaria: 10-30-15_Visentin_PhD_Career_Preferences.pdf

    2015, 10/23: Weihua An: 2-Abstracts_Extracting Social Networks_and_Subject Citation Networks.pdf

    2015, 9/22: Chunli Bai: Math Seminar

    2015, 9/18: Melanie Sinche: ABSTRACT_Identifying Career Pathways for PhDs in Science.pdf

    2015, 4/24: Adam Isen

    2015, 3/6: Riccardo Crescenzi

    2015, 3/27: David Ong

    2015, 2/20: Matt Neidell: 2-Paper_Particulate Pollution and Productivity of Pear Packers

    2015, 2/20: Matt Neidell: 1-Paper_Impact of Pollution on Worker Productivity

    2014, 4/4: Dan Wang

    2014, 4/25: Dan Wang

    2014, 3/28: Ralf Martin

    2014, 2/28: Paula Stephan: 3_Paper 3_Mobile Scientists-Intl Networks

    2014, 2/28: Paula Stephan: 2_Paper 2_Migrant Scientists

    2014, 2/28: Paula Stephan: 1b_Paper 1 supplement

    2014, 2/28: Paula Stephan: 1a_Paper 1_text_Foreign Born Scientists

    2014, 2/14: John Van Reenan

    2014, 12/5: William Kerr

    2014, 11/21: Gabriel Chan

    CHAN-Gabriel_11-21-14_JMP - National Lab Patent Licensing.pdf

    2014, 10/3: Susan Feng Lu

    2014, 10/10: Sen CHAI

    2014, 10/10: CHAI-Sen: Moving Beyond Bibliometrics_10-11-13.pdf

    2013, 9/13: Nirupama Rao

    2013, 3/8: Blume-Kohout

    2013, 4/19: Nirupama Rao

    2013, 3/15: Lubynsky: Abstract and Summary

    2013, 3/15: Lubynsky: Powerpoint

    2013, 11/8: Gabe Chan and Laura Diaz Anadon

    2013, 10/18: George Borjas and Kirk Doran

    2013, 10/11: Sen Chai

    2012, 10/26: Freeman - Paper 2

    2012, 10/26: Freeman - Paper 1