Seminars: Economics of Science & Engineering

Term:  Fall 2020 and Spring 2021
ZOOM LINK: See HBS-SBBI Seminar Site and join the ListServ for weekly link 

Meeting Time:  Fridays, 10:30am-12pm. 
Time may be adjusted if needed, to best accommodate time zones.
- Day of week may vary, to best accommodate speaker or audience 

Description:  Focus on work force and career issues. Topics include: Effects of globalization on work force and innovation, growth of networks in work; impact of career incentives on productivity; university policies; mobility between academe and industry; link between ideas and outputs, and affects of the Covid19 pandemic on the economics of science.  
Contact for Ec3118 ListServ:  to receive weekly Zoom link, contact Jennifer at <amadeoholl@gmail.com>
Co-sponsor & Co-Host:  HBS SBBI /TOM Seminar (Science Based Business Initiative)

NEXT SEMINAR 

NEXT SEMINAR - Econ of S&E 
DATE:  Friday,  October 30 @ 10:30am
SPEAKERS: Vincent Larivière (University of Montréal) 
TITLE:  "Dissemination of Knowledge in the Context of a Pandemic"
ZOOM LINKand at HBS-SBBI Seminar Site | and join listServ for weekly link
BIO:
Vincent Larivière is full professor of information science at the École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information, l’Université de Montréal, where he teaches research methods and bibliometrics. He is also the scientific director of the Érudit journal platform, associate scientific director of the Observatoire des sciences et des technologies and a regular member of the Centre interuniversitaire de recherche sur la science et la technologie. He holds a B.A. in Science, Technology and Society (UQAM), an M.A. in history of science (UQAM) and a Ph.D. in information science (McGill), and has performed postdoctoral work at Indiana University’s Department of Information and Library Science.
ZOOM MODERATOR: Vendi Pavic, HBS, Technology Operations Management Unit
Co-sponsor & Co-Host:  HBS SBBI /TOM Seminar (Science Based Business Initiative)
ZOOM RECORDING: to be posted after the seminar

FALL 2020 - SCHEDULE 

DATE SPEAKER  TITLE  
9/11 @ 10:30am Janet Freilich (Fordham Univ, School of Law)
and
Soomi Kim (MIT Sloan School of Management)

TITLE:  Is the Patent System Sensitive to Information Quality?
ABSTRACT: We investigate whether the patent system is sensitive to information quality by observing how players in the patent system (applicants, examiners, and downstream readers) treat inaccurate information. We propose a novel approach to identify poor quality patents: patent-paper pairs where the paper has been retracted and the corresponding patent contains retracted information. We find that these patents are prosecuted, maintained, and cited at rates similar to control patents, despite containing inaccurate information. Insensitivity to information quality may lead to erroneous decisions during patent examination and has implications for patent quality, patent disclosure, and how patents facilitate knowledge flows.
RELATED RESEARCH:
Freilich, Janet and Lisa Larrimore Ouellette. (2019) "Science Fiction: Fictitious Experiments in Patents" Science: Policy Forum (Intellectual Property),Science  Vol. 364, Issue 6445 (14 Jun): 1036-1037.
BIO & HOME PAGE: Fordham University
HOME PAGE: MIT Sloan School
ZOOM RECORDING - 2020.9.11 (mp4) and CHAT questions

9/18 @ 10:30am Megan E. Frederickson (University of Toronto, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

TITLE: "The Pandemic Penalty: The Gendered Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Scientific Productivity” (paper joint with Molly M. King, Santa Clara University)
ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has touched everyone’s lives, but it has not affected everyone equally. The risk and severity of the disease itself, and the pandemic’s economic and social impacts, vary by age, income, race, and gender. The pandemic has laid bare and often worsened many pre-existing inequalities in our world. One issue of longstanding concern is gender equality, especially in science, and I will discuss why the pandemic has the potential to worsen gender gaps in STEM fields. Data from several sources, including my own analysis of preprint submissions to arXiv and bioRxiv broken down by gender, suggest that women are getting less research done than men during the pandemic. I will explore several possible explanations for this trend, including an increased child care burden, and discuss possible solutions.
BIO & WEB-PAGE: Frederickson Lab, Mutualism Ecology & Evolution
WEB-PAGE: Frederickson Lab, Mutualism Ecology & Evolution
ZOOM LINK: see HBS-SBBI site
ZOOM RECORDING - 2020.9.18: Includes Audio transcript & chat (toggle tab to see chat questions)

9/25/20 Josh Nicholson (cofounder and CEO, scite.ai) TITLE: "scite.ai: a deep learning platform that evaluates the reliability of scientific claims by citation analysis". 
ABSTRACT: Scite is an award-winning platform for discovering and evaluating scientific articles via Smart Citations. Smart Citations allows users to see how a scientific paper has been cited by providing the context of the citation and a classification describing whether it provides supporting or disputing evidence for the cited claim. To date, scite has classified over 675 million citation statements from 18 million scientific articles and has partnered with leading publishers including Wiley, Rockefeller University Press, Cambridge University Press, and the BMJ amongst others. In this talk, I will highlight scite as a tool and how it is being used by researchers, academic publishers, and others. I will also tell the founding story of scite, challenges faced, and future planned developments.
BIO and Josh Nicholson at Medium.com
ZOOM RECORDING - 2020.9.25
10/2/20 Caroline Wagner (Ohio State Univ) TITLE: "Consolidation in a Crisis: Patterns of International Collaboration in COVID-19 Research" (paper joint with Caroline V. Fry, Xiajing Cai, and Yi Zhang)
ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 global pandemic led scientists to turn their research agendas towards coronavirus related research. This paper seeks to understand whether a catastrophic and urgent event, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, accelerates or reverses trends in international collaboration, especially in and between China and the United States. This early review shows that COVID-19 teams are smaller than those on coronavirus related research in the preceding period, and include fewer nations. The results reveal that the United States and China were, and continue to be, at the center of the global network in coronavirus related research, and continue their roles as the largest contributors to, and home to the main funders of, coronavirus related research during the global pandemic. An examination of the international collaborative activities of scientists based in these two countries documents that both nations increased their absolute levels of international collaboration following the outbreak and increased their collaboration with each other, but that they are partnering with fewer nations than in the preceding period. These findings suggest that the global COVID-19 pandemic shifted the structure of scientific teams, narrowing team membership and favoring elite structures. These findings raise further questions over the decisions that scientists face in the formation of teams to maximize a speed, skill trade-off. Policy implications are discussed.
BIO: OSU Glenn Close College of Public Affairs
ZOOM RECORDING - 2020.10.2
10/9/20

Jeffrey L. Furman (BU, Questrom Sch of Business) and
Florenta Teodoridis (USC, Marshall Sch of Business)

TITLE: Measuring the Direction of Innovation: Frontier Tools in Unassisted Machine Learning" (paper joint with Jino Lu, USC)
ABSTRACT: Understanding the factors affecting the direction of innovation is a central aim of research in the economics and strategic management of innovation. Progress on this topic has been inhibited by difficulties in measuring the location and movement of innovation in ideas space. We introduce and explore an approach based on an unassisted machine learning technique, Hierarchical Dirichlet Process (HDP), that flexibly generates categories from a corpus of text and enables calculations of the distance and movement in ideas space. We apply our algorithm to patent abstracts from the period 2000-2018 and demonstrate that, relative to the USPTO taxonomy of patent classes, our algorithm provides a leading indicator of shift in innovation topics and enables a more precise analysis of movement in ideas space.
RELATED RESEARCH: 
1. Furman, J. and F. Teodoridis. 2020. “Machine Learning Could Improve Innovation Policy” (Nature, Nature Machine Intelligence, 2(84): 245-534, C2. 
2. Furman, J. and F. Teodoridis. 2020. “Automation, Research Technology, and Researcher’s Trajectories: Evidence from Computer Science and Electrical Engineering” (Organization Science, 31(2).
BIO: Jeff Furman
BIO: Florenta Teodoridis
ZOOM RECORDING - 2020.10.9
10/16/20  

NO SEMINAR

10/23 @ 10:30am Adam Jaffe (Brandeis University)

TITLE: "Tracing the Linkages Between Scientific Research and Energy innovations: A Comparison of Clean and Dirty Technologies" (paper joint w/ Robert K. Perrons &Trinh Le)
ABSTRACT: The challenge of mitigating climate change has focused recent attention on basic scientific research feeding into the development of new energy technologies (Popp, 2017). Energy innovation tends to consist of a series of partially overlapping processes involving: (1) the production of scientific and technological knowledge, (2) the translation of that knowledge into working technologies or artifacts, and (3) the introduction of the artifacts into the marketplace, where they are matched with users’ requirements. However, relatively little data are available showing how long each of these processes takes for energy technologies. Here we combine information from patent applications with bibliographic data to shine light on the second process—that is, the translation of scientific knowledge into working prototypes. Our results show that “clean” energy technologies are more dependent on underlying science than “dirty” technologies, and that the average lag between publication of scientific findings and the incorporation of those findings in clean energy patents has risen from about five to about eight years since the 1980s. These findings will help policymakers to devise more effective mechanisms and strategies for accelerating the overall rate of technological change in this domain.
BIO: Brandeis and BIO: MOTU, NA
ZOOM RECORDING:  2020.10.23

10/30 @  10:30am Vincent Larivière (University of Montréal) 

TITLE: Dissemination of Knowledge in the Context of a Pandemic
BIO: l’Université de Montréal
ZOOM LINKand at HBS-SBBI Seminar Site | and join listServ for weekly link
BIO: 
ZOOM RECORDING:  tbd

11/6 @ 10:30am Benjamin Jones (NW Kellogg School of Mgmt) and Daniel J. Kim (UPenn Wharton School) TITLE: “Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the United States” (paper joint with Pierre Azoulay and Javier Miranda)
ABSTRACT: Immigration can expand labor supply and create greater competition for native-born workers. But immigrants may also start new firms, expanding labor demand. This paper uses U.S. administrative data and other data resources to study the role of immigrants in entrepreneurship. We ask how often immigrants start companies, how many jobs these firms create, and how these firms compare with those founded by U.S.-born individuals. A simple model provides a measurement framework for addressing the dual roles of immigrants as founders and workers. The findings suggest that immigrants act more as "job creators" than "job takers" and that non-U.S. born founders play outsized roles in U.S. high-growth entrepreneurship.
ZOOM LINK - HBS-SBBI Seminar Site | & join ListServ to receive full Zoom details
ZOOM RECORDING:  tbd
11/13 @ 10:30am Ashley Nunes (Harvard Law School)

TITLE: Forecasting the energy implications of electric, autonomous fleets (paper joint with Laurena Huh and Richard Freeman)
ABSTRACT:
- Energy demand in land transportation is significant. In the United States alone, gasoline consumption averages nearly 400 million gallons daily, most of which is used by light-duty vehicles. Though exercise of these vehicles facilitates economic mobility, negative externalities persist. Internal combustion engines (ICE) - used to propel most light duty vehicles – convert a fraction of stored energy into propulsion, thereby producing consumption inefficiencies. ICE powered vehicles are also - owing to their reliance on fossil-fuels - a dominant source of air pollutants, exposure to which increases societal morbidity and mortality risk. Can electric, autonomous vehicles help? 
- In this talk, we explore the energy impact of deploying electric, autonomous taxis. We leverage publicly available data to develop an energy forecasting model. Our results show that the adoption of electric powertrains coupled with higher levels of automation represent a viable pathway towards reducing energy consumption though not necessarily CO2 emissions. Our results further identify the factors that affect the ability of electric, autonomous taxis to compete with the status quo. We explore the implications of our findings for public policy. 
BIO
Ashley Nunes is a Research Fellow in the Labor and Worklife Program at Harvard Law School. He is also a lecturer in the Department of Economics at Harvard College and previously held research appointments at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the U.S. Department of Transportation. Dr. Nunes earned his Ph.D from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. 
ZOOM LINK - HBS-SBBI Seminar Site | & join ListServ to receive full Zoom details
ZOOM RECORDING: tbd

    END OF SEMESTER

 

 

 

Location of Baker 102 (Bloomberg Center), HBS

Speaker Papers and PPTs (since 2012) - and - Zoom Recordings (2020)

2020, 11/13:

2020, 11/6:  JONES-Benjamin and KIM_Daniel "Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the United States” (paper joint with Pierre Azoulay and Javier Miranda)

2020, 10/30: LARIVIERE-Vincent: "“Dissemination of Knowledge in the Context of a Pandemic”

2020, 10/23: JAFFE, Adam: "Tracing the Linkages Between Scientific Research and Energy Innovations: A Comparison of Clean and Dirty Technologies" (paper joint w/ Robert K. Perrons and Trinh Le)

2020, 10/9: FURMAN, Jeffrey and TEODORIS, Florenta: "Machine Learning Could Improve Innovation Policy”

2020, 10/2: WAGNER-Caroline, Consolidation in a Crisis: Patterns of International Collaboration in COVID-19 Research (paper joint w/ Caroline V. Fry, Xiaojing Cai, and Yi Zhang)

2020, 9/25: NICHOLSON-Josh

2020, 9/18: FREDERICKSON-Megan: "The Panemic Penalty: The Gendered Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Scientific Productivity” (paper joint w/ Molly M. King, Santa Clara University)

2020, 9/11: FREILICH-Janet, SEMINAR: Is the Patent System Sensitive to Information Quality" - Zoom Recording and Chat questions
2020, 9/11: FREILICH-Janet:  RELATED RESEARCH: Freilich, Janet and Lisa Larrimore Ouellette. 2019. "Science Fiction: Fictitious Experiments in Patents" Science: Policy Forum (Intellectual Property),Science  Vol. 364, Issue 6445 (14 Jun): 1036-1037.

2020, 4/3:  LOGG-Jennifer:  "Algorithm Appreciation: People Prefer Algorithmic to Human Judgement" (paper with Julia A. Minson and Don Moore)

2020, 2/28:  HILL-Ryan, "Scooped! Estimating Rewards for Priority in Science"

2019, 11/22: GLAESER-Edward: The Spatial Mismatch between Innovation and Joblessness_NBERchap-in-Lerner-Stern_Ec3118
2019, 11/22: GLAESER-Edward: The Rise of Non-Employed Men

2019, 11/15: NUNES-Ashley: ​Can driverless technology upend personal vehicle ownership? A bottom-up global analysis_Ec3118

2019, 9/27: BOUDREAU-Kevin and MARX-Matt: From Theory to Practice: Field Experimental Evidence on Early Exposure of Engineering Majors to Professional Work

2019, 9/20:  FRANK-Morgan: Paper 1 - Small cities face greater impact from automationJournal of the Royal Society Interface (2018).
2019, 9/20: FRANK-Morgan: Paper 2 - Unpacking the polarization of workplace skillsScience Advances (2018).
2019, 9/20: FRANK-Morgan: Paper 3 - Towards understanding the impact of AI on laborPNAS (2019).

2019, 9/13: GUZMAN-Jorge: The Impact of State-Level R&D Tax Credits on the Quantity and Quality of Entrepreneurship_NBERwp26099_ec3118

2019, 4/22: ROSSI-Francesca: AI-Ethics-for-Enterprise-AI_ec3118-HBS.pdf

2019, 3/8: Van REENAN-John: Who Becomes an Inventor in America_NBERwp24062.pdf

2019, 2/25: FURMAN-Jason: AI-and-Economy_NBERwp24689.pdf

2019, 2/22: LI-Li-and-MAK-Eric: Peer Optimal Assignment_with-Wang_4Jan19.pdf

2019, 2/1: FREEMAN-Richard and XIE-Qingnan: Bigger than You Thought_Chinas Contribution_JOURNAL_China and World Economy_Jan2019.pdf

2018, 4/20: LO-Andrew: paper-1_SBBI-4-20-18_NBT_Dec2017.pdf

2018, 4/20: LO-Andrew: paper-2_SBBI-4-20-18_Jamaoncology_Montazerhodjat_2017_oi_170004.pdf

2018, 4/20: LO-Andrew: paper-3_SBBI-4-20-18_DDT_Devices.pdf

2018, 4/20: LO-Andrew: paper-4_SBBI-4-20-18_predictive_15.pdf

2018, 4/20: LO-Andrew: paper-5_SBBI-4-20-18_ClinTrialSuccess.pdf

2018, 3/2: MALONEY-Bill: Engineering-Growth_8-31-17.pdf

2018, 2/23_TABAKOVIC-Haris: Revolving_Doors_Tabakovic_Wollmann_ec2888r.pdf

2018, 2/9: BESSEN-James: AI and Job - The Role of Demand_nberw24235.pdf

2017, 10/6: GLENNON-Britta: Offshoring Innovation in Taiwan_WP_6Oct 2017.pdf

2017, 10/4: BORJAS-George: 10-4-17_Ethnic-Complementarities-Students_NBERw21096.pdf

2017, 4/21: GREENSTEIN-Shane: ICTE-1.pdf

2017, 2/17: LANE-Julie_et-al: Research Funding and Regional Economics_NBERw23018.pdf

2017, 2/17: LANE-Julie_et-al: PPT_Research Funding and Regional Economies_2-17-17

2017, 2/3: KERR-William_et-al: Mechanics of Endogenous Innovation_Patents.pdf

2016, 12/9: DEMING: SocialSkills_NoAppendix_Aug2016.pdf

2016, 11/4: BOSSO-Christopher: JNR.pdf

2016, 10/28: MOTOYAMA-Yas: Connected Entrepreneurs.pdf

2016, 10/21: LESCHLY SEMINAR: SWARTZ_Speech_10-21-16.htm

2016, 10/21: LESCHLY SEMINAR: BERGER-Kenneth_5-Minutes Sermon.pdf

2016, 10/7: Doblinger: Governments as partners (w-Surana+Anadon).pdf

2016, 10/6: BORNER: full report_NSF-ModSTI-Conf-Report_for-SBBI-10-6-16.pdf

2016, 10/6: BORNER: Discussion-on-10-6-16_Modelling Sci Tech Innov.docx

2016, 9/16: WANG: Bias Against Novelty in Science_(with Veugelers-Stephan)_w22180.pdf

2016, 4/8: ARORA-Ashish_Killing the Golden Goose - Decline of Science in Corporate R&D

2016, 3:11: GANGULI-Ina: Mobility of Elite Life Scientists.pdf

2016, 2/5: WILLIAMS-Heidi: How Do Patents Affect Follow-on Innovation_Evidence from Human Genome_WP21666_Oct2015.pdf

2015, 12/4: Richard Freeman and Sen Chai

2015, 11/6: Jing Xia: Financing and the Market for Ideas - Evidence from Biopharma.pdf

2015, 10/30: Annamaria Conti: PhD Career-Preferences.pdf

2015, 10/30: CONTI-Annamaria: 10-30-15_Visentin_PhD_Career_Preferences.pdf

2015, 10/23: Weihua An: 2-Abstracts_Extracting Social Networks_and_Subject Citation Networks.pdf

2015, 9/22: Chunli Bai: Math Seminar

2015, 9/18: Melanie Sinche: ABSTRACT_Identifying Career Pathways for PhDs in Science.pdf

2015, 4/24: Adam Isen

2015, 3/6: Riccardo Crescenzi

2015, 3/27: David Ong

2015, 2/20: Matt Neidell: 2-Paper_Particulate Pollution and Productivity of Pear Packers

2015, 2/20: Matt Neidell: 1-Paper_Impact of Pollution on Worker Productivity

2014, 4/4: Dan Wang

2014, 4/25: Dan Wang

2014, 3/28: Ralf Martin

2014, 2/28: Paula Stephan: 3_Paper 3_Mobile Scientists-Intl Networks

2014, 2/28: Paula Stephan: 2_Paper 2_Migrant Scientists

2014, 2/28: Paula Stephan: 1b_Paper 1 supplement

2014, 2/28: Paula Stephan: 1a_Paper 1_text_Foreign Born Scientists

2014, 2/14: John Van Reenan

2014, 12/5: William Kerr

2014, 11/21: Gabriel Chan

CHAN-Gabriel_11-21-14_JMP - National Lab Patent Licensing.pdf

2014, 10/3: Susan Feng Lu

2014, 10/10: Sen CHAI

2014, 10/10: CHAI-Sen: Moving Beyond Bibliometrics_10-11-13.pdf

2013, 9/13: Nirupama Rao

2013, 3/8: Blume-Kohout

2013, 4/19: Nirupama Rao

2013, 3/15: Lubynsky: Abstract and Summary

2013, 3/15: Lubynsky: Powerpoint

2013, 11/8: Gabe Chan and Laura Diaz Anadon

2013, 10/18: George Borjas and Kirk Doran

2013, 10/11: Sen Chai

2012, 10/26: Freeman - Paper 2

2012, 10/26: Freeman - Paper 1